The Philippine capital of Manila, situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay, is the most densely populated city in the world, with over 1.6 million inhabitants in an area covering 38.5 square kilometers; the greater metro area covers 638 square kilometers, with a population of over 11 million. The impacts of the growing population create serious infrastructure and environmental problems in the areas of land, water, air, sewerage, drainage, waste, and traffic. The Pasig River, which cuts through the urban area, is one of the most polluted rivers in the world.
Landsat imagery acquired in 1989 and 2012 illustrate the rapid growth of the urban area. The data are used to monitor and measure the rate and direction of growth and are useful for planning resources and environmental protection to adjust to the growth.