These images show the dramatic urban growth within the Nile River Delta and the expansion of agriculture into adjoining desert areas. The Nile is the world's longest river at 4,160 miles. It flows south to north, bringing fresh, nutrient-rich water to Egypt.
In these images, red indicates vegetation. The contrast is clear between the lush vegetation of irrigated fields and the white or tan barren desert.
Abercrombie, T.J., 1977, Egypt—change comes to a changeless land: National Geographic, v. 151, no. 3, p. 312–343.
B1M, 2019, Building Egypt’s $58BN New City in the Sand: The B1M Limited, accessed October 4, 2021, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=P0fkucDtTRE.
CIA, 2012, Egypt: The World Factbook, available only online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html. (Accessed October 29, 2012.)
Cunningham, E., 2012, Egypt is losing its grip on the Nile: Globalpost, available online at https://www.pri.org/stories/2012-04-09/egypt-losing-its-grip-nile. (Accessed October 29, 2012.)
Cunningham, E., 2012, Egypt's next revolution: Globalpost, available online at https://www.pri.org/stories/2012-04-09/egypt-s-next-revolution. (Accessed October 29, 2012.)
Ellis, W.S., and Parks, W., 1972, Cairo—Troubled Capital of the Arab World: National Geographic, v. 141, no. 5, p. 639–667.
Fox, R.W., and Carroll, A., 1984, The urban explosion: National Geographic, v. 166, no. 2, p. 179–185.
Helen, C.M. (ed.), 1991, Egypt—a country study: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., 425 p.
Magdy, M., 2021, Egypt Readies What May Be Its Biggest IPO as Capital Emerges: Bloomberg, accessed October 4, 2021, at https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-08-15/egypt-readies-what-may-be-its-biggest-ipo-as-new-capital-emerges.
Mourad, M. and Lewis, A., 2021, From creaking Cairo, Egypt plans high-tech leap with new capital: Reuters, accessed October 4, 2021, at https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/creaking-cairo-egypt-plans-high-tech-leap-with-new-capital-2021-09-02.
Theroux, P., 1993, Cairo—clamorous heart of Egypt: National Geographic, v. 183, no. 4, p. 38–68.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1994, Statistical Abstract of the United States—1994: Washington, D.C., 1011 p.
Voiland, A., 2020, New Ground for an Ancient City: NASA Earth Observatory, accessed October 4, 2021, at https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146521/new-ground-for-an-ancient-city.
World Almanac Books, 2012, The World Almanac Book of Facts: New York, World Almanac Books.