Togo is one of the smallest countries of West Africa. Nevertheless, Togo has a variety of landscapes and straddles several bioclimatic regions. Northern Togo is characterized by the seasonal Sudanian climate, with a single rainy season. Woodlands and savannas still predominate in the north, but they are losing ground to agriculture. This region is exposed to dry Harmattan winds and prone to drought. The Atacora mountain range crosses central Togo, with more wooded landscapes, and a few isolated remnants of dense tropical forest. These forest relicts form the eastern limit of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. The southern half of Togo falls into the Guinean climatic region, characterized by two rainy seasons. The coastal area, however, is part of the Dahomey Gap, a relatively dry savanna zone that separates the high rainfall regimes outside of Togo to the east and west. The coast receives an average of only 900 mm of rainfall per year. Agriculture and mining are key economic activities in Togo. Food crops and cash crops such as cacao, coffee, and cotton are the main sources of income for 80 percent of the population. Togo is also one of the world’s five leading producers of phosphates.